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Types of hybrid vehicles

  • Types of hybrid vehicles

    Types of hybrid vehicles

    Types of hybrid vehicles

    Car fuel consumption has always been made as one of the greatest commodities among the designers of the automotive industry. In recent years, due to excessive natural consumption, its very high price, as well as the damage to the environment caused by severe fuel consumption, it has been longer for the new generation of cars to become electric and become other fuels instead of natural fuels. Manufactured and used cars. Hybrid and electric are booming.


    What is a Hybrid Car?

    The hybrid car, also known as the green car, uses two power sources and a battery to move. The system of this type of dual electric car consists of a gasoline engine, an electric motor and a battery, which aim to consume as little gasoline as possible and maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of the car.

    A hybrid car stores the electrical energy generated by the electric motor in its battery and works by combining the combustion energy of gasoline or diesel; Of course, in some types it is possible that the electrical energy of the battery; Produced by internal combustion system or from regenerative brakes.
    Note: Keep in mind that electric motors are three times more efficient than gasoline motors.

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    The difference between hybrid, plug-in hybrid and semi-hybrid

    As the popularity of hybrid cars grows, these days everyone is familiar with the concept or term of two-wheel drive cars. These types of machines have taken over a large part of the global market. According to opinion polls, in August of this year the Australian car market was dominated for the first time by a hybrid car.

    Here, hybrid means a combination of two types of propulsion (an internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor). But what may confuse most people is the difference between the three hybrid models, the hybrid, the plug-in hybrid and the semi-hybrid. In this article, we examine the differences between these three options and the strengths and weaknesses of each.

    Plug-in hybrid cars

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a car or vehicle powered by a gasoline engine and an electric motor. An external source must be used to charge this type of vehicle.

    One of the advantages of PHEV machines is that you can use only the electric motor or both motors installed on the car, depending on the amount of remaining charge from the battery. Audi says:

    “For many people who use the car on a daily basis, PHEVs can be a good option for driving without emissions. Because many roads and paths can be traveled with an electric motor without producing any pollutants. In addition, thanks to the presence of a gasoline engine, it is possible to travel long distances with this type of vehicle. “Due to advances in battery capacity and propulsion management, the electrical range of PHEV machines has increased compared to the past.”

    The battery range of these cars is between 13 kWh and 18 kWh. This means that the range of the electric motor alone is equivalent to 40 to 60 km. The full charge time depends on the size and capacity of the batteries, the type of machine and the charging method.

    Pros: Electric motor driving, the presence of a gasoline engine and reducing stress, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced.

    Cons: Must be charged from an external source, electric motor range is not enough for a full week.

    Examples: Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, Hyundai Ioniq PHEV, Range Rover Sport PHEV

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    Full hybrid cars

    In full hybrid cars, there is no need for an external source to charge. In this type of vehicle, two gasoline and electric motors work together. A Toyota spokesman said:

    Simply put, hybrid cars use both engines to propel the car. At low speeds, the battery produces enough power to move. When more power is needed, the gasoline engine also starts. The engine generates power both to move the wheels and to charge the battery. You can only use an electric motor. In addition to the engine, a hybrid car can absorb energy. Otherwise, as the speed decreases, the power to recharge the hybrid battery is wasted. “In these cars, an external source is no longer needed due to the charge of the battery while driving, either from the gasoline engine or using the energy taken from the movement of the car.”

    However, the battery life of hybrid cars is not enough. Usually you can only use an electric motor for up to 30 km.

    Pros: Fuel economy does not require an external charger

    Cons: With an electric motor, you can only drive at very low speeds.

    Toyota CH-R (Toyota CH-R hybrid)
    Lexus UX250h (Lexus UX250h)
    Subaru XV (Subaru XV hybrid)


    Semi-hybrid car

    The popularity of this type of hybrid car is increasing. In these cars, a small low-capacity electric motor (12V, 24V or 48V) is added to the car to support the petrol engine. This is a type of ISG or one-handed generator stratum.

    Why do we use the word support? Because this small electric motor alone can not move the car. It works more like a low speed stop system. At higher speeds, this motor can play an important role in increasing speed and reducing pressure and load.

    A Toyota spokesman said: “Compared to a semi-hybrid and an all-hybrid car, the main difference is between the two power sources, which in full hybrid cars can each operate separately, but not in a semi-hybrid car.”

    Pros: Helps the main engine perform better, has a smaller size and price

    Cons: Electric motor cannot be used alone.

    Mazda 3 X20 Astina Skyactiv-X M (2020 Mazda 3 X20 Astina Skyactiv-X M Hybrid)
    Audi Q7 (Audi Q7)
    Land Rover Discovery Sport

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    The best hybrid cars in the world

    Toyota Prius
    Ford Fusion Hybrid
    Chevrolet Volt
    Kia Optima Hybrid
    Ford Energy Fusion
    Toyota Camry Hybrid
    Hyundai Sonata Hybrid

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    Iranian market hybrid cars

    Toyota Camry XLE
    Toyota Camry SE
    Lexus NXH300H
    Toyota Prius
    Lexus CT200H
    Hyundai Sonata Hybrid
    Kia Optima Hybrid
    Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid
    Toyota CHR


    Lexus NX Hybrid

    Japan ranks well in the world in the production of high-powered hybrid vehicles; The NX is one of those advanced Japanese cars. The Lexus NX is powered by a 2,500 cc four-cylinder engine that supports 194 horsepower; The Lexus accelerates from 0 to 100 km / h in 9.3 seconds and its emission standard is Euro 5.

    Toyota Camry Hybrid

    The Camry is one of the most popular and best-selling cars in Iran. Shortly after the success of the gasoline-burning Camry, the hybrid version also took to the streets of Iran and experienced good sales. This car has a 2500 cc electric motor with 203 horsepower and 213 Nm of torque. Needless to say, the Toyota Camry accelerates from 0 to 100 km / h in 7.6 seconds.

    Hyundai Sonata Hybrid

    The Sonata hybrid version has a 2,000 cc electric motor that supports 193 horsepower and 250 Nm of torque. The 0-100 acceleration of the Hyundai Sonata is 9.3 seconds and its emission standard is Euro 5.


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    Kia Optima Hybrid

    Hybrid version of Optima after the gasoline-burning model, which was popular in Iran; It managed to get a good ranking in the number of sales of hybrid cars in Iran (although in general, there are not many hybrid cars in our country). Acceleration from 0 to 100 Optima is 8 seconds and its emission standard is Euro 8.

    Optima consists of a 38 kW 2000cc electric motor with 51 horsepower and 330 Nm of torque. This car is known as one of the environmentally friendly vehicles.

    Toyota Prius

    Prius, known for many years as one of the cleanest hybrid cars in the world; It uses an 1800 cc four-cylinder engine along with an electric motor. It accelerates from 0 to 100 km / h in 10.6 seconds and its emission standard is Euro 6.

    BMW i8

    The BMW i8 is the beautiful and popular car of the German BMW BMW, which introduced this model for 2020 from 2013. The car, which is one of the most successful hybrid cars of the Bavarian company, announced the cessation of production of the i8 car in 2020.

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    Types of hybrid cars

    There are different types of hybrid vehicles which are divided into five general categories of parallel, series, parallel series, mild and rechargeable according to the transmission power system and efficiency of gasoline and electric engines:


    Parallel Hybrid

    In parallel hybrid vehicles, both gasoline and electric motors are on all the time and work together; The way it works is that gasoline delivers fuel to the gasoline engine and the battery delivers energy to the electric motor at the same time.

    The parallel hybrid car uses only an electric motor at low speeds; In other words, this type of car is suitable for use in urban areas and is considered an urban car and is not recommended for driving on highways and at high speeds.

    Important Note: The batteries of this type of hybrid are small in size, so it is possible to reach the maximum charging capacity in a short time.

    Series Hybrids

    The series hybrid cars can to some extent be called a green and clean car; Because the gasoline engine is used only to charge the battery and all work is done by the electric motor.

    The way these cars work is that first the gasoline engine transmits the power generated by the generator to the power controller, and then the power generated is used to charge the battery as well as to power the electric motor, and finally the engine. Electricity injects the generated force into the transmission, causing the vehicle to start moving.

    Series hybrids run completely without fuel consumption, and the gasoline engine only acts as a power generator.

    The remarkable thing about the hybrid series cars is that this type of car uses a more expensive and larger battery than other types. Also due to the complexity of the internal combustion generator, these cars are usually more expensive and more expensive than pure electric cars.

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    Series-Parallel Hybrid

    In this type of car, a combination of series and parallel hybrid technology is used together, so that in its design, an attempt has been made to preserve the advantages and disadvantages of each as much as possible.

    At low speeds, the parallel series hybrid car is powered by an electric motor and the gasoline engine starts when more energy is needed to move the car. Like when the car is moving uphill or at high speed.

    Every time the car stops, the gasoline engine automatically shuts off and only the electric motor runs to save fuel, and by pressing the accelerator pedal again, the car’s control is transferred to the gasoline engine.

    Note: The command to use the gasoline or electric motor is issued alone or simultaneously by the computer installed in the car.

    Mild Hybrids

    Gentle hybrid technology is very similar to parallel hybrids, in that the electric motor drives the car simultaneously and in parallel with the gasoline engine. The point that distinguishes these two types of cars is the lack of strong batteries with high storage capacity in mild hybrids.

    Also, these types of cars are cheaper than other hybrid cars. Major car companies such as Honda, General Motors and Toyota use this technology in their latest hybrid models.

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    Plug-in Hybrid

    Larger batteries with high energy storage capability are used in this type of car and the gasoline engine starts only when the battery is completely discharged. Rechargeable hybrids are suitable for short-distance use because there is no need for fuel or a gasoline engine as long as the battery is charged. Rechargeable hybrid vehicles also have the ability to connect to electrical outlets in charging stations for charging, which is a great advantage.


    Hybrid car battery life

    Interestingly, automakers guarantee that a car battery will last at least five years, but since 70% of the original capacity of a hybrid car battery runs out before the end of this five-year period, you have eight to 10 years after purchasing this type. Cars can use its battery. Therefore, the battery life of electric machines is between eight to 10 years. Also, do not worry about replacing the battery of your hybrid car, because you can get a new battery for each model.




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